VAK learning styles form a model of learning designed by Walter Burke Barbe and later developed by Neil Fleming.
The VAK learning model divides people into three categories of learner:
People predominantly learn using one style – whether visual, auditory or kinaesthetic. Though every learner often incorporates elements of the other two styles, they are likely to achieve maximum benefit from learning by focusing on their primary style.
Visual learners absorb information primarily by seeing it, or by visualising it mentally. They:
Auditory learners absorb information primarily by hearing it. They:
Kinaesthetic learners absorb information primarily through movement in a physical way. They:
An expanded version of the VAK learning model, VARK, is based on Neil Fleming’s work and includes four learning styles.
In VARK, the fourth learning style (R) is based on the impact of the representational systems, i.e. the impact of social factors such as solitary versus group work.
Other learning styles based on the VAK/VARK learning models have also been postulated. A model commonly used in education features eight learning styles and distinguishes between two categories of sight-based learning (linguistic and spatial) as well as incorporating inter and intrapersonal learning styles reflective of Fleming’s focus on social learning.
Make use of these learning styles to streamline your pupils’ learning processes with neuroscience. The VAK learning model was received with special interest in schools, where it has been employed as a means of helping pupils to learn more effectively and with greater enjoyment.
According to the VAK model the best way of lesson planning for a successful class should ideally incorporate activities that facilitate all three learning styles to cater to the needs of all pupils.
For instance, reading textbooks and writing notes to satisfy visual learners, explaining a topic aloud to the class for auditory learners and practical activities for the kinaesthetic learners. If possible combine all three styles into activities.
As every pupil learns by using all three styles not just their dominant one, providing for all three in your lessons will create a rich educational environment for your pupils.
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